Over the last couple of years, I’ve worked with a variety of customers looking to transform the way they deliver end user computing services. Typically they fall into two camps:
- “We invested heavily in thin client technologies and now we’re finding them to be over-engineered and expensive with multiple layers of technology to manage and control.”
- “We have a managed Windows desktop running <insert legacy version of Windows and Office here> but the business wants more flexibility than we can provide.”
There are others too (like the ones who bought into a Mobile Device Management platform that’s no longer working for them) but the two examples above are by far and away the most common issues I see. When helping customers to understand their options for providing end user computing services, I like to step up a level from the technology – to get back to the logical building blocks of an end user computing solution. And, over time, I’ve developed and refined a diagram that seems to resonate pretty well with customers as a framework around which to build end user solutions.
Starting at the bottom left of the diagram, I’ll describe each of the main blocks in turn:
- Identity and access: I start here because identity is absolutely key in any modern enterprise. If you’re still thinking about devices and operating systems – you’re doing it wrong (more on that later). Instead, the model is built around using someone’s identity to determine what applications they can access and how data is protected. Identity platforms work across cloud and on-premises environments, provide additional factors for authentication, self-service functionality (e.g. for password and group management), single sign-on to both corporate and cloud applications, integration with consumer and partner directory services and the ability to federate (i.e. to use a security token service to authenticate on-premises).
- Data protection: with identity frameworks in place, let’s turn our attention to the data. Arguably there should be many more building blocks here but the main ones are around digital rights management, data loss prevention and endpoint security (firewalls, anti-virus, encryption, etc.).
- Connectivity: until we all consume all of our services from the cloud, we generally need some form of connectivity to “the mothership”, whether that’s a client-less solution (like Microsoft DirectAccess) or another form of VPN. And of course that needs to run over some kind of network – typically a Wi-Fi or 4G connection but maybe Ethernet.
- Devices: Arguably, there’s far too much attention paid to different types of devices here but there are considerations around form factor and ownership. Ultimately, with the correct levels of management control, it shouldn’t matter who owns the device but, for now, there’s a distinction between corporately-owned and user-owned devices. And what’s the “other” for? I use it as a placeholder to discuss embedded systems, etc.
- Desktop operating system: Windows, MacOS, Linux… increasingly it doesn’t matter what the OS is as apps run cross-platform or even in a browser.
- Mobile operating system: iOS, Android (maybe Windows Mobile). Again, it’s just a platform to run a browser – though there are considerations around native applications, app stores, etc. (we’ll come back to those in a short while).
- Application delivery: this is where the “fun” starts. Often, this will be influenced by some technical debt – and many organisations will use more than one of the technologies listed. Apps may be locally installed – and they can be managed using a variety of management tools. In my world it’s System Center Configuration Manager, Intune and the major mobile app stores but, for others, there may be a different set of tools. Then there’s virtualised/containerised applications, remote desktops and published applications, trusted apps that run from a file share and, finally, the panacea that is a browser-delivered app. Which makes me think… maybe this diagram needs to consider add-ins and extensions… for now, let’s keep it simple.
- Device and asset management: until we live in a world of entirely user-owned devices, there are assets to manage. Then, sadly, we have to control devices – whoever they belong to – whether that’s policy-driven device and application management, more traditional configuration management, or just the provision of a catalogue of approved applications. Then there’s alerting, perhaps backups (though maybe not if the data is stored away from devices) and something I’ve referred to as “desktop optimisation” which is really the management tools for some of the delivery methods and tools described elsewhere.
- Productivity services: name your poison – Office 365 or G-Suite – it doesn’t matter; these are the things that people do in their productivity apps. You may disagree with some of the categories (would Slack fit into enterprise social networking, or is it team sites?) but ultimately it’s about an extensible set of productivity services that end users can consume.
- Input/output services: I print very little but others print a lot. Similarly, there’s scanning to be done. The paperless office is still not here…
- Environmental management: over time, this will fade away in favour of mobile device and application management solutions but, today, many organisations still need to consider how they control the configuration of desktop operating systems – in the Windows world that might mean Group Policy and for other platforms it could be scripted.
- Business data and applications: all of the stuff above means nothing if organisations can’t unlock the potential of their data – whether it’s in the CRM or ERP system, end user-driven reporting and BI, workflow or another line of business system.
- High availability and business continuity: You’ll notice that this block has no subcomponents. For me, it’s nothing more than a consideration. If the end user computing architecture has been designed to be device and platform agnostic, then replacing a device should be straightforward – no need to maintain whole infrastructures for business continuity purposes. Similarly, if all I need is a device with an Internet connection and a browser, then the high availability conversation moves away from the end user computing platform and into how we provide the services that end users need to access.
I’m sure the model will continue to develop over time – it’s far from perfect and some items will be de-emphasised over the years (for example the differentiation between mobile and desktop operating systems will become less important) whilst others will need to be added, but it seems a reasonable starting point around which to start a discussion.