The Enterprise Architecture Stack

Over the years, I’ve written several posts about IT architecture. Whilst it seems that there is an increasing trend to call experienced IT folks “architects”, one of my core beliefs is that Enterprise Architecture is not the same as “architecting” IT at enterprise scale. Yes, creating an IT architecture that will scale to support a global organisation with thousands of users is “enterprise scale” – but it’s not Enterprise Architecture.

So what is Enterprise Architecture?

Like so many things in life, an illustration can really help describe a point. And, a few years ago, I came across an excellent Enterprise Architecture diagram from Dave Clark and Sophie Marshall. You can see it as the featured image at the top of this post and one of the reasons I like it so much is that it’s clear that the technology is only one of several factors in a whole stack of considerations.

I adapted it (under Creative Commons) but the basic premise of the diagram remained the same – step back from the problem and understand the organisation to consider its needs and requirements. We need to know what is needed before we can can consider solutions! Then, we should ask what good looks like. Don’t just dive in with technology.

Let’s take each layer in turn… and you’ll see that, right away, I added another layer at the top.


The purpose is about why an organisation exists. It should be straightforward to answer but is hopefully more than “to deliver value to our shareholders”. A Council may exist to provide services (statutory and otherwise) to citizens. A retailer may exist to (make money and) provide the best selection of fashionable clothing at affordable prices. It’s entirely logical that the organisation’s culture will be strongly linked to its business motivations.

Many organisations will give an indication of their purpose on their website, or in their company report. For example, the IKEA vision, values and business idea sets out the organisation’s purpose in the form of:

  • A vision: “To create a better everyday life for the many people”; and
  • A business idea: “to offer a wide range of well-designed, functional home furnishing products at prices so low that as many people as possible will be able to afford them.”


Strategy supports purpose by providing business ambition and goals – a direction in which to head. Storytelling and visualisation are techniques that can be used to communicate the strategy so that it’s well understood by everyone in the organisation. They can also help others who need to work with them (for example business partners). A useful tool for defining business strategy is the Business Model Canvas, based on the book by Alexander Osterwalder and Yves Pigneur.

Looking briefly at visualisation, Scott Berinato (@ScottBerinato)’s 2016 article for Harvard Business Review on Visualizations [sic] That Really Work stresses the need to understand the message you want to convey before you get down into the weeds. This blog post is a case in point – I want to show that Enterprise Architecture is much more than just technology. And I found a good visualisation to illustrate my point.

As for storytelling, I’ve seen some fascinating presentations over the years on how to tell a good story to bring a presentation to life. One of the most memorable was at a Microsoft MVP Event in 2017. Tony Wells used this example of how we tell stories to children – and how we (too) often communicate at work:

(I’m still practicing my storytelling technique, but Hubspot also has what it calls The Ultimate Guide to Storytelling.)

What, Who and How

What we do is a description of the products and services that the organisation offers – the business’ capabilities. These may be the value propositions in the Business Model Canvas but I would suggest they are a little more detailed. Strength/Weakness/Opportunity/Threat (SWOT) analysis can be a useful tool here too for identifying what could be done, though the emphasis is probably more on what is currently done, for now.

Who we do it for is about the consumers of the organisation’s products and services – understanding who the “users” are. Tools might include stakeholder maps and matrices, empathy maps, personas.

How it’s done is about understanding the methods and processes that deliver “the what” to “the who”. Journey maps, process flow diagrams, storyboards and SWOT analysis can all help.

Who does it is about the people, where they are located, and how the organisation is structured. In a world of remote and hybrid working it’s even more relevant to understand the (human) network and how it works.

Software, data and technology

Only after we’ve understood “the Business layers” (purpose, strategy and the what, who and how) can we move onto the IT. And that IT is more than just infrastructure:

  • The data models that support this. (There may a discussion to be had there about data, information, knowledge and wisdom but that’s a topic in itself.)
  • The software applications that are used to access that data.
  • And the underlying technology infrastructure.

Why is this important?

For many years, I was part of and then managed a team of people who were labelled “Enterprise Architects”. During that time, I argued that the term was aspirational and that most of the work we did was Solution Architecture. Maybe that was splitting hairs but we rarely got the chance to drive strategy, or to get involved in designing the organisational structure. Whilst we were experienced at IT, we still operated at the lower levels in the stack: business requirements driving software, data and technology decisions. We wanted to become trusted advisors, but for the most part, the work we performed for our clients was transactional.

My colleague Ben Curtis (/in/BenCurti5) has an excellent analogy built around perception and perspective. I hope he won’t mind me borrowing it:

  • Perception is about what meets the eye. Imagine you’re walking through a forest and come across a single tree. Your first impression of that tree – its size, shape, colour, and surroundings – is your perception.
  • Perspective is seeing the Forest and the Trees. Now, let’s say you climb to the top of a hill and look down at the entire forest. Suddenly, you see how all the trees are connected, how the sunlight filters through the leaves, and how animals move through the undergrowth. This bigger view – the perspective – gives you a deeper understanding of the forest as a whole.

Whilst this can be used to show the difference between an individual system and the complete view of an IT environment, I’d suggest that its also about how the IT environment is part of something much larger – an organisation of people and processes, supported by technology, that exists with a purpose and a strategy to make it happen. And that, is the Enterprise Architecture.

Related posts

Here are some posts I’ve written previously on IT architecture. I think this is the first time I’ve properly outlined what Enterprise Architecture means though:

Featured image: The Enterprise Architecture Stack, by Dave Clark and Sophie Marshall [source: Dave Clark on LinkedIn]

Weeknote 13/2021: Project progress and procrastination

This content is 3 years old. I don't routinely update old blog posts as they are only intended to represent a view at a particular point in time. Please be warned that the information here may be out of date.

This has been a short week (with only 3 days at work) but I’m pretty pleased with what I achieved in that time:

  • Publishing the Architecture Toolbox I’ve been working on for a few months. That sounds a bit grand for what’s really just a library of re-usable artefacts but, hey! I finally realised that I can’t do everything (perfection is the enemy of good) so it’s time to let it fly and let others contribute…
  • Starting to get under the covers of a new engagement with a local authority client where we’re carrying out some digital service design. It’s fascinating for me to learn from my colleague Richard Quayle (@RichardSQuayle) around concepts like the locus of control, the negatives of a command and control structure (cf. Edward Deming’s approach), failure demand – and much more as we jointly deliver this Business Consulting engagement.
  • A very insightful chat with a client where we’re looking to engage around an Architecture service. It was refreshing to hear that they find TOGAF too conceptual and want to take a more pragmatic approach around EA on a Page (which I referenced in my post on developing IT architecture skills).

I’ve struggled with procrastination/distraction this week too. The challenges of back to back online meetings are obvious but it seems meetings spaced out through the day can be equally problematic. The challenge is that they leave no time to really get into flow before the next meeting is due.

Anyway, both of these cartoons resonated with me…

(in the week that a the MV Ever Given got stuck and closed the Suez Canal, for 6 days.)

Back in the world of work, Alex (@LyleD4D)’s lateral thinking let me embed an msteams:// link in a SharePoint page, by changing the protocol section of the URI to https://.

Meanwhile, my colleague Richard Kleiser (@ThatRichK) introduced me to this diagram from Dave Clarke, which attempts to visualise the concept of Enterprise Architecture:

And that reminds me of something I meant to mention in last week’s weeknote – Rich Goidel (@RichGoidel)’s Strategy vs. Tactics cartoon, which featured in my Microsoft Catalyst pre-sales training:

I also started to see the direction that motoring is heading in. As electrification reduces revenues from servicing, software will become the next subscription opportunity.

Although it was probably intended as an April Fool, What Two Figures (WTF) pretty much sums up my feelings about What Three Words.

Outside work, the UK’s easing of “lockdown” restrictions saw the return to Caveman Conditioning – training outdoors again instead of over Zoom!

I also completed some online learning around First Aid Essentials in Sport. This is a requirement for my certification as a British Cycling coach but I’ve struggled to complete an approved course during “lockdown”.

A look ahead to the weekend

This weekend will see me:

  • Meeting up with another family for a country walk (something we’ve not been able to do for a while!).
  • Returning to Youth Training at my local cycle club (the first time we’ve been able to run a session since I became a coach).
  • Resuming Cyclist’s Dad/Directeur Sportif duties as my eldest son returns to racing.

It will probably also involve consumption of Easter Eggs (I did buy rather a lot of Creme Eggs this week).

Talking of Creme Eggs, Natalie Jackson (@NatalieDellar) alerted me to this post with “groovy things to do with Crème Eggs“.

And next week…

In addition to celebrating the 49th anniversary of my arrival on this planet, next week will be mostly spent at home including some time doing geeky hobby stuff in the Man Cave. There will also be the final assessment for my First Aid Essentials in Sport certification (which will be interesting over a Zoom call, to which I’ve been asked to bring a pillow and a bandage!).

This week in photos

The “wheel of fortune”

This content is 11 years old. I don't routinely update old blog posts as they are only intended to represent a view at a particular point in time. Please be warned that the information here may be out of date.

Last week, I wrote about the White Book of Big Data – a publication I co-authored last year at Fujitsu.

One of the more interesting (for me) sections of the document was an idea from one of my colleagues, providing a model to determine next steps in forming a strategy for embracing a new approach (in this case to move forward towards gaining value from the use of a big data solution but it can be applied to other scenarios too).

The model starts with a “wheel” diagram and, at the centre is the first decision point. All organisations exist to generate profit (even non-profits work on the same principles, they just don’t return those profits to shareholders).  There are two ways to increase profit: reducing cost; or increasing revenue.

For each of the reduce cost/increase revenue sectors, there are two more options: direct or indirect.

These four selections lead to a number of other opportunities and these may be prioritised to determine which areas to focus on in a particular business scenario.

With those priorities highlighted, a lookup table can be used to suggest appropriate courses of action to take next.

It’s one of those models that’s simple and, I think, quite elegant. I’ll be looking to adopt this in other scenarios in future and I thought that readers of this blog might find it useful too…

Take a look at the book if you want to see this working in practice – “the wheel” is on page 37.

Business as usual? @euan at #DigitalSurrey

This content is 12 years old. I don't routinely update old blog posts as they are only intended to represent a view at a particular point in time. Please be warned that the information here may be out of date.

Last week, I made my regular(ish) trip to Surrey’s digital networking evening, Digital Surrey.  This month’s speaker was Euan Semple (@euan), former BBC Director of Knowledge Management, author, consultant – and, it seems, entertaining public speaker.  This blog post covers some of what Euan had to say about business and the social web…

Back to reality

Euan started out by saying that he used to dread talking to people working with social media but then he realised that even people in “social” don’t have the time to stop and look at what it is, and where we’re going. In fact, he takes issue with some of the basic premises of what’s going on right now [and he has a point]:

  • Labelling something as “digital” draws a line between it and the alternative – it makes the rest “other”.
  • Social media has been turned into a “thing” – the industrialisation of something that should be personal…
  • “Social” is not a collection of channels, it’s a singular phenomenon, that’s been hijacked by marketing…

Wow. Controversial. Perhaps? But what Euan suggests is that what we’re doing with “social media” is really about getting back to real connections with real people doing real stuff, albeit in a digital format.

At this point, Euan moved on to knowledge management [something which has been causing me pain over the last couple of weeks, as a result of some dubious decisions made…]. In his time as the BBC’s Director of Knowledge Management he found that people wanted him to create knowledge repositories. But a repository sounds like a medical term, leading to knowledge extraction, which is just a short step from knowledge harvesting (some sort of cerebral milking machine)?! And then we wonder why people don’t engage with knowledge management, he says.

At the BBC, Euan’s team started of by putting in a basic bulletin board, which has only recently fallen by the wayside in favour of Yammer. They also created wikis and blogs. And yes, that was all some time ago but even today, Euan’s clients are being forced to spend money on Jive, Tibbr and Yammer, etc. but he says it’s all still just little text boxes. Over engineering what is required so that the IT guys feel comfortable.

What I found most interesting is that the BBC created its blogging guidelines with collaboration via wiki – in effect they created a social media policy without any meetings and people lined up behind the policy because they had been part of creating it.

By comparison, many organisations are stuck in a mindset of managers telling staff to do things, then measuring and monitoring. We can but hope that this will move to the side as people self-organise.

The Cluetrain Manifesto [a book which is often quoted but which I have yet to read] talks of “globally distributed, near instant, person to person conversations” and Euan has examples to demonstrate this in reality: journalists catching up on Twitter after an event happens; educationalists trying to get their head around informal learning (a process that is sometimes disparaged). But, reassuringly, it’s all about people, building relationships and trust in relationship.

Euan describes how his blog has the power to form relationships – he has online friends that he knows better than people he’s worked with – just connected differently [I can echo this].

“The knack of blogging is a willingness to open up and share – it can foster some really powerful relationships.

[Euan Semple, Digital Surrey, October 2012]”

Three different mediums, three different uses

Euan went on to describe three different social mediums and how there are subtle differences in their use.

Looking first at blogs. He’s written posts that he thinks will change the world and nothing happens [me too!]. Conversely, he’s written “rubbish” after a drink and the world thinks is interesting! Either way, we still create networks. Your blog with your own domain name is your space on the web.

Euan believes that organisations should allow their “nerds” to blog, first internally, then externally. In this way, they can be seen to be trustworthy and reliable. And, if everyone blogs, we get a sense of the organisation that’s not possible yet. Taking that a step further, if we make the content available externally, it can have a huge impact on the brand.

The second medium is Facebook, where we seem to have a willingness to open up compared with internal social networks where we tend to think “what will we share?”. There’s also the point about oversharing and drunken student photos to which Euan’s response is that “I wouldn’t employ someone who hadn’t got drunk as a student” [A view that I also share]. And then there’s his view on dress sense for business:

“Suits used to make you look respectful and trustworthy – they just make you look like a banker now!

[Euan Semple, Digital Surrey, October 2012]”

Next up is Twitter, which Euan used to see as yet more “inane twoddle”. Now he confesses that he can’t do without it (although he may have to soon if Twitter continues to make the changes that are hacking off users). He says that Twitter filters the web and cuts out a lot of noise but the numbers can get ridiculous – so he has some advice in order to make better use of the medium.

Euan has over 7000 followers [I have around 2000 and recognise the issue]. He follows many so that they can send direct messages but he only actively follows a list of 100. The resulting effect is better information, faster. And Twitter is also a resource – people will give answers to questions, because of reciprocity: if enough enough people get value from his tweets, they will decide to follow and then converse.

The de-industrialisation of knowledge

The old phrase that knowledge is power used to mean that holding on to knowledge made you powerful. Now the power is in giving it out…

Once you have a blog, you find that you start to write more. You see things and think “oh that’s interesting, I might blog about that”. [I have many unwritten posts inside my head]. This creates a chain of thought, and hopefully others will find it interesting, point to it, comment or react to it…

Euan suggests that this has potential as another way to run businesses – noticing people, setting things off, creating ripples…

We used to recognise the power of the hyperlink but this has been corrupted by Facebook likes and Google pluses. Even so, there are other means to harvest information sources and make them work for us.

RSS  is a mechanism that allows people to subscribe to content. By choose sources carefully (blogs, etc.) we can add value without causing stress or noise, making choices about information, assembling our channels rather than relying on others to pump information to us.

Many Twitter constructs, such as hashtags, or even even the @ sign to direct a message were user-created. Now they appear on hoardings, TV captions, almost everywhere and they represent a user-driven method of assigning meaning and importance.

What we’re doing is really about de-industrialisation. Pre-industrialisation, more people used to work in what we would now recognise as freelance roles, as artisans, travelling in small groups. Maybe this is where business is heading today?

Finding our voice

As businesses, Euan suggests that we’ve outsourced communications to professional communicators; we’ve outsourced caring to Human Resources; and we’ve outsourced storytelling to the media.

We need to find our voices. More than that, we need to find a way to communicate that we’re comfortable with, that’s authentic, and that gives the confidence to express ourselves. Euan has seen senior people getting worked up about writing a blog post [I’ve experienced this too], finding it difficult to get their heads around non-vetted conversation.

Euan cited an example of an organisation that captioned themselves as thought leaders. But how can you be a thought lead when no-one knows what you think? We need to take the time to think (blogging has the advantage of giving someone the time to stop and think “why am I doing this”) and to start “writing ourselves into existence”. There’s something therapeutic about the network way of thinking, and leaving a trace on the world.

Retaining knowledge

About a month before Euan’s role was made redundant at the BBC, he was asked to take part in a meeting to discuss preventing knowledge leaving the organisation! Ironic, maybe, but it illustrates a certain way of thinking inside many organisations.

Euan says that PwC call their document repositories “knowledge coffins” and that they are “where documents go to die” but internal social networks are different. One piece of advice that he offers is to try to resist people trying to “tidy it up” and make things more sanitised.

To use an analogy, villages grow other centuries, they are haphazard but work, based around a focal point. Euan compares this to the modern town of Milton Keynes, built around a grid system that seems makes sense but which people struggle to relate to [I live near Milton Keynes and can’t see the problem with the grid, but I do have to work with internal social networks that I don’t relate to…].

Effectively, we’ve become too good at tidying up and, in cutting out the noise, we cut out the signal.

We can’t achieve everything in one go and Euan suggests taking a “strategically tactical” approach. Set up projects that will go off and find their own way but eventually come together – a concept described as “Trojan mice”! Or, to put in another way, create a “start-up”/entrepreneurial attitude and fund some small things to see where they go.

Making it real, with enthusiasm

Whilst many organisations grapple with becoming “web 2.0” businesses outside the firewall, Euan suggests that they struggle to be even 1.0 inside. That may be harsh but there are are organisations where sign-off is required on blog posts, tweets, etc. and, if you’re lucky, you might get to release a 140 character press release! It makes no sense and, Euan suggests, is the organisational equivalent of your dad dancing at the disco. You’re proud of him for having a go but you’d really rather he stopped!

The reality is that the inside is the outside – all of your staff are on social networks. But are they allowed to talk about work, or even to admit where they work. In the modern, connected, world we expect 24×7 communications but what’s the impact of this?

Brands need to allow staff to be advocates, to be enthusiastic about working for them. After all, if your staff are not enthusiastic, you have a problem anyway.

Euan tells a story about his Crumpler bag and how the company helped him to understand how to re-thread the strap but then the zip failed, and he tried to make contact again, only to find that his contact was no longer there. He had a sense of relationship with an individual inside the organisation but then he felt let down because it was no longer there. That’s disappointing [and a reason that organisations need to plan for long-term social media engagement].

At the other extreme, Euan talks of organisations where they think no-one wants to know about their product (for example, a brick manufacturer). But they do… sometimes! There is latent interest in even the most superficially dull topics, we just need to find out how to unlock it.

Euan suggests that we’re really at the start of something and, just as when the  printing press was invented, we don’t know where we’re going. That might take another 50 years, but we have to be in there and making the space habitable in order to gain the benefits.

Euan Semple’s book, Organizations Don’t Tweet, People Do: A Manager’s Guide to the Social Web, is available from Amazon.